alterniflora is a rhizomatous perennial grass, grows 0.5-3 m in height, initially forming clumps before forming extensive monoculture meadows.Spartina spp. The plant also expands via underground rhizomes. 28 (17), 4012–4027. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2011.02636.x, Qiao, H., Liu, W., Zhang, Y., Zhang, Y.-Y., Li, Q. Q. High Genetic Diversity With Weak Phylogeographic Structure of the Invasive Spartina alterniflora (Poaceae) in China. U. S. A. 34 (12), 2055–2069. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0405230101. 22 (22), 4673–4680. Many empirical and theoretical studies on biological invasions have been conducted on various taxonomic groups for resolving this worldwide concern (Lee, 2002). Weeds Gone Wild: Alien Plant Invaders of Natural Areas – Plant Conservation Alliance, Invasive Spartina Project – California Coastal Conservancy, Plant Info and Images – University of Florida, Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants, Plant Profiles – California Invasive Plant Council, Alaska Natural Heritage Program – University of Alaska, Anchorage, Fire Effects Information System – USDA Forest Service, Marine Invasive Species – National Park Service. Methods and approaches for the management of arthropod boader incursions. 4 (2), 359–361. Mol. Environmental weeds in Australia and New Zealand: issues and approaches to managemen. Total plant height can be up to 7 feet tall. It is suggested that although these individuals have actually grown via seed propagation (i.e., sexual reproduction), they may be considered as clones with exactly the same genotype due to the extreme homozygosity. Cyperales > Poaceae > Spartina alterniflora Loisel. For two years, we studied the roles of propagule pressure, competition, disturbance, and herbivory in the dynamics of this invasion at a typical mangrove habitat, Zhangjiang Estuary, southern China. Grasping at the routes of biological invasions: a framework for integrating pathways into policy. A few greenhouse studies have compared the plant traits of native and invasive populations of S. alterniflora and found populations of S. alterniflora from native habitats have a lower biomass, photosynthetic rate and root biomass ratio than invasive populations ( Qing et … doi: 10.1111/j.1472-4642.2010.00672.x, Howes, B. L., Teal, J. M. (1994). Regarding the genetic differences among the individuals, the pairwise co-dominant genotypic distances in each Japanese population were calculated using GenAlEx ver. Reimagining South American coasts: unveiling the hidden invasion history of an iconic ecological engineer. Genotypic diversity enhances invasive ability of Spartina alterniflora. On the other hand, populations of this species in the San Francisco Bay, California, and China, which were introduced intentionally, had a relatively high genetic diversity (Blum et al., 2007; Bernik et al., 2016). The datasets generated for this study can be found in the DNA Data Bank of JAPAN (DDJB), accession number: LC565815. Resour. Rates of change in the numbers of dunlin, Calidris alpina, wintering in British estuaries in relation to the spread of Spartina anglica. Smooth cordgrass came to Washington in the late 1800s, either in shipments of oysters from the East Coast or as packing material in ships’ cargo. (20 to 50 cm) long and 1 to 8 in. Leaf blades which are grey-green in colour can be 20-55cm long and and be up to 5cm in width. In this study, we assumed that countries or regions having high trade with Japan would be likely to become donor spots for spreading the invasive S. alterniflora irrespective of intentional/unintentional pathways as mentioned before. It should be noted that no information has been reported on S. alterniflora populations with such low genetic diversity so far (Blum et al., 2007; Bernik et al., 2016). doi: 10.1093/bioinformatics/bts460, Piry, S., Luikart, G., Cornuet, J.-M. (1999). Within the region of its origin, haplotype C4 was widely observed in the Atlantic coast of the U.S. Also, this haplotype was the most dominant in the East Asian countries where S. alterniflora has been introduced intentionally (China, see An et al., 2007) or unintentionally (Taiwan and Hong Kong e.g., Scholz et al., 2009; Guo et al., 2015). The Ecology of Invasions by Animals and Plants (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press). (2001). Xu, H., Qiang, S., Han, Z., Guo, J., Huang, Z., Sun, H., et al. Universal primers for amplification of three non-coding regions of chloroplast DNA. Therefore, the most likely invasion route may have been the arrival through a transport vehicle (i.e., stowaway) (Hulme et al., 2008). Ecological impacts of invasive alien plants: a meta-analysis of their effects on species, communities and ecosystems. (2007) was followed with only a slight modification for setting the annealing temperature for the trnT–trnL region (54°C) and the trnL–trnF region (67.5°C). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. 16 (4), 582–592. doi: 10.1007/BF00325879, Hulme, P. E., Bacher, S., Kenis, M., Klotz, S., Kühn, I., Minchin, D., et al. The significant excessive homozygosity on Japanese S. alterniflora populations was observed in the infinite allele mutation model (IAM), the stepwise mutation model (SMM), and the two-phased model of mutation (TPM) (P<0.05). Hortus Northwest 6, 9–12, 38-40. The Supplementary Material for this article can be found online at: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpls.2020.556039/full#supplementary-material, Amsellem, L., Noyer, J. L., Le Bourgeois, T., Hossaert-Mckey, M. (2000). (2019). Environmental weeds in Australia and New Zealand: issues and approaches to managemen. Introduction to conservation genetics (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge university press). Ser. 90 (4), 502–503. Lowe, A., Harris, S., Ashton, P. (2004). doi: 10.1093/molbev/mst197, Thompson, J. D., Higgins, D. G., Gibson, T. J. doi: 10.1093/nar/22.22.4673, Vilà, M., Espinar, J. L., Hejda, M., Hulme, P. E., Jarošik, V., Maron, J. L., et al. Therefore, this finding suggests that S. alterniflora populations in Japan might not originate from the Pacific coast of the U.S. Smooth cordgrass was introduced on the West Coast in the early 1970s to be used as erosion control. Divers. (2009). Distrib. Among the 11 microsatellite markers, no genetic polymorphisms were detected from the locus SPR3. 15 (5), 822–830. species are known to have been deliberately introduced into the bay in the 1970's as part of marsh restoration projects. Mitsch, W. J., Jorgensen, S. A. Figure 4 Population structures based on the microsatellite mutation among the genes sampled from Spartina alterniflora populations in Japan using Bayesian estimation. Mo. doi: 10.1146/annurev-environ-033009-095548, Pyšek, P., Jarošik, V., Hulme, P. E., Pergl, J., Hejda, M., Schaffner, U., et al. doi: 10.1007/s10531-005-2575-5, Zhou, H.-X., Liu, J.-E., Qin, P. (2009). Biodivers. Software STRUCTURE ver. This fact suggests that S. alterniflora populations in the Willapa Bay might be derived from multiple populations on the Atlantic coast around New York (i.e., mid-Atlantic source) (Blum et al., 2007). Divers. Dlugosch, K. M., Parker, I. M. (2008). doi: 10.2331/suisan.73.1129 (in Japanese, Peakall, R., Smouse, P. E. (2012). Mol. doi: 10.1016/S0169-5347(02)02554-5, Levin, L. A., Neira, C., Grosholz, E. D. (2006). (Rosaceae) in its native range and in areas of introduction, using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Figure 2 Frequency and distribution of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) haplotypes in the region of origin (the eastern Unites States) and in the regions where Spartina alterniflora had been introduced intentionally and/or unintentionally (the Pacific coast of the U.S. and the East Asian countries). Ecoscience 12 (3), 330–338. Three case studies for control of invasive alien ant species, fire ant (Solenopsis invicta, Formicidae) in Japan. Indeed, values of AR in Japanese S. alterniflora were very low in comparison to those in the U.S. and China populations, with significant excessive homozygosity detected in three mutation models. Water Supply 50 (3), 113–124. Biol. Mol. (20 to 50 cm) long and 1 to 8 in. Lett. Oxygen loss from Spartina alterniflora and its relationship to salt marsh oxygen balance. Morgan, V. H., Systma, M. (2010). Divers. Mol. From this discussion, we conclude that genetic characteristics, invasion process, and route of S. alterniflora populations in Japan were as follows: 1) all S. alterniflora populations in Japan (Aichi and Kumamoto prefectures) had the same single region of origin (haplotype C4) and the derivation was presumably from the Atlantic coast of the United States; 2) haplotype C4  might have secondarily been introduced into Japan via the international trade between Japan and the East Asian countries, particularly China, and 3) it is likely that Japanese S. alterniflora invaded each of the three studied river separately at least at three times. International trade serves as one of the driving factors for the widespread invasion of the invasive species (Elton, 1958; Lockwood et al., 2007; Davis, 2009; Richardson, 2011). Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. (2007). Lowe, S., Browne, M., Boudjelas, S. (2000). Davis, M. A. The plants tend to grow in circular clumps called ‘clones’ and are bright green in color. Inference of population structure using multilocus genotype data. These facts suggest that S. alterniflora expanding in East Asian countries originates from populations (found) in the southeast U.S., especially around the Florida Peninsula. Seed of … Invasive species, environmental change and management, and health. (2000). Invasive Spartina alterniflora and tidal flat loss endanger important shorebird habitat in coastal mainland China. Gallego-Tévar, B., Infante-Izquierdo, M. D., Figueroa, E., Nieva, F. J. J., Muñoz-Rodriguez, A. F., Grewell, B. J., et al. Tamaoki, M., Takizaki, Y. Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Coastal and Wetland Ecosystems, College of the Environment and Ecology, Xiamen University, Fujian, 361102 China. doi: 10.1073/pnas.032477999, Schaal, B. Genetic and historical evidence disagree on likely sources of the Atlantic amethyst gem clam Gemma gemma (Totten 1834) in California. Microsatellite analysis was conducted using 11 microsatellite markers (SPR1, SPR2, SPR3, SPR4, SPR5, SPR6, SPR7, SPR8, SPR9, SPR10, SPR11), developed by Blum et al. Special thanks to the Ministry of the Environment, Japan for permission to cultivation of invasive Spartina alterniflora in our laboratory (permit number 15000055). Natl. Haplotype C2, C3, and C4 of Group C consisting of multiple haplotypes are shown in green, yellow, and pink, respectively, and other C members are shown in blue. Among the three regions, trading between the ports of northern Kumamoto and the U.S. was obviously lower than trading with China. As a result, S. alterniflora populations of Japan were classified into three groups: 1) Umeda River (Aichi), 2) Shirakawa and Tsuboi Rivers (northern Kumamoto), and 3) Oono River (southern Kumamoto) (Figure 4B). The gene diversity (h), allelic richness (AR), and coefficient of inbreeding (FIS), and its confidence intervals were calculated using FSTAT ver. (2016). doi: 10.1007/s10750-014-2117-9, Hayasaka, D., Fujiwara, S., Uchida, T. (2018). 17 (8), 1881–1887. In addition, serious ecological impacts of Spartina species on native aquatic ecosystems through competitive exclusion (Goss-Custard and Moser, 1988; Wan et al., 2009; Zhou et al., 2009; Morgan and Systma, 2010) and changes in community and trophic structures (Simenstad and Thom, 1995; Levin et al., 2006; Bortolus et al., 2015) were found due to their expansion. Alaska Spartina Prevention, Detection and Response Plan (Juneau, AK: National Marine Fisheries Service Alaska Region). Lombaert, E., Guillemaud, T., Cornuet, J.-M., Malausa, T., Facon, B., Estoup, A. 6.0 was used for competitive multiple sequence alignment (MSA) (Tamura et al., 2013). Current status and environmental effects of Spartina spp. 35 (4), 444.452. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoleng.2008.05.020, Wang, X. Y., Shen, D. W., Jiao, J., Xu, N. N., Yu, S., Zhou, X. F., et al. (1999) suggested that Wilcoxon’s test is most powerful and robust when used with few polymorphic loci. Flowering occurs in July to November, when densely packed clusters of tan flowers develop. These results suggest that there is no exchange of S. alterniflora genome among the four rivers in Japan. From these facts, we cannot deny the possibility that S. alterniflora was introduced unintentionally into Japan through the importation of cultured shellfishes. Richardson, D. M. (2011). We grew both Chinese and US plants in a glasshouse common garden for 3 yr. Chinese … In addition to the evidence based on genetic analyses, we assumed that countries or regions having high trade with Japan would be likely to become donor spots for spreading the invasive S. alterniflora irrespective of intentional/unintentional pathways. The temperature conditions of Blum et al. Characterization of microsatellite loci in Spartina species (Poaceae). Therefore, these facts indicate that the founder effect might have occurred in S. alterniflora populations in Japan. (2009). (2015). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). (2016). Genetic admixture accelerates invasion via provisioning rapid adaptive evolution. Simultaneously, it is also important that S. alterniflora is detected and eliminated at an early invasion stage in order to minimize its invasion. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoleng.2008.06.007, Keywords: biological invasion, chloroplast DNA, founder effect, genetic structure, microsatellite, secondary introduction, smooth cordgrass, trade history, Citation: Maebara Y, Tamaoki M, Iguchi Y, Nakahama N, Hanai T, Nishino A and Hayasaka D (2020) Genetic Diversity of Invasive Spartina alterniflora Loisel. Invasions 18 (5), 1485–1498. To achieve control and/or eradication of invasive S. alterniflora and prevent its future invasion successfully, knowledge about the current status of S. alterniflora in Japan through a population genetic approach is thought indispensable. Hydrobiologia 745 (1), 313–327. Ecol. We sampled vegetative and reproductive traits in the field at 20 sites over 20° latitude in China (invasive range) and 28 sites over 17° in the US (native range). Invasive Plant Sci. Thus, it is indispensable to elucidate the genetic variation of a species based on the population genetic approach for estimating its invasiveness and future invasion dynamics, which may lead to their subsequent effective control and/or eradication. 25 (5), 425–444. In addition, no S. alterniflora population was found in Japan before 2008 (Tamaoki and Takizaki, 2015). 17, 1105–1109. Supporting Spartina: interdisciplinary perspective shows Spartina as a distinct solid genus. (2011). For example, the most likely invasion pathways of S. alterniflora in Willapa Bay, Washington, on the Pacific coast of the U.S. was the transport and translocation of oysters for cultivation via interstate railroad after the 1890s (Civille et al., 2005). Eds. 17 (8), 386–391. Invasions 18 (4), 1057–1075. We conducted manipulative field experiments to determine the impact of smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) invasion on the N cycling of salt marsh ecosystems in the Yangtze Estuary, China. 45 (2), 403–414. In addition, the mode shift test suggested that a bottleneck (i.e., shifted mode) would have been formed in these populations in recent years (Table 2). Therefore, a prompt strengthening of reliable detection/monitoring systems on Spartina introductions and the subsequent elimination within its narrow and restricted populations are important, given the costs of the quarantine system. |, https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpls.2020.556039/full#supplementary-material, http://www2.unil.ch/popgen/softwares/fstat.htm, https://www.env.go.jp/nature/intro/2outline/files/siteisyu_list_e.pdf, Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). Spartina alterniflora rapidly spread their populations via both sexual (seed) (Hayasaka et al., 2020) and asexual (clonal) reproduction and then form a high-density single colony (Somers and Grant, 1981; Davis et al., 2004). doi: 10.1111/ddi.12377, Bortolus, A., Adam, P., Adams, J. 89 (3), 238–247. Mol. Microsatellite analysis also showed a loss of genetic diversity in Japanese S. alterniflora populations (allelic richness (AR) = 1.20–1.39) compared with that in its native region (AR = 4.58–4.59), suggesting a founder effect on S. alterniflora that might have occurred after invasion of the species into Japan. Substantial loss of tidal flats, shorebirds’ primary feeding grounds, has occurred due to coastal development. Chung, C. H. (1989). Therefore, it is important to strengthen the quarantine control on the importation of commodities, especially of transport vehicles at potential donor spots (i.e., border control/border biosecurity system), to decrease further risks of various biological invaders (Chornesky and Randall, 2003; Xu et al., 2006) including that of Spartina species (Castillo et al., 2018; Gallego-Tévar et al., 2019). Ecol. Biol. Front. All names of the haplotypes obtained in this study were assigned according to the method of Blum et al. Impact Factor 4.402 | CiteScore 7.8More on impact ›, National Tropical Botanical Garden, United States, Faculty of Science, University of South Bohemia, Czechia. Total plant height can be up to 7 feet tall. Civille, J. C., Sayce, K., Smith, S. D., Strong, D. R. (2005). This is because Piry et al. However, the FIS values of samples from the Umeda River (FIS = 0.01) did not deviate from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (Table 1). doi: 10.1007/s10530-016-1128-z, Bernik, B. M., Li, H., Blum, M. J. Front. The polymorphic locus rate (P) was calculated for each local population. 11:556039. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2020.556039. BOTTLENECK: a computer program for detecting recent reductions in the effective population size using allele frequency data. The consequences are changes in the structure and function of the ecosystem and eventually the degradation of the native ecosystem, reducing its ecological function. Nevertheless, it suggests that only one S. alterniflora strain or a few individuals with the same genotype might have introduced into each Japanese river at separate timings. Oecologia 144 (1), 1–11. Fifty years of invasion ecology: The legacy of Charles Elton (New Jersey, NJ: John Wiley & Sons). We thank Dr. Francisco Sánchez-Bayo (The University of Sydney), Dr. Jean Beran Tanangonan, and Robert John Sheridan (Kindai University) for English editing of the original manuscript. Evol. Results of the genetic analysis of Japanese S. alterniflora samples collected using the different markers demonstrated that the number of alleles of S. alterniflora individual stands in each river was less than or equal to 2, except for one sample from the Tsuboi River (Supplementary Table 2). Eds. To evaluate the genetic structure in the individuals, analysis with STRUCTURE allocated all individuals to K clusters by Bayesian’s clustering and was conducted to maximize the linkage disequilibrium and Hardy-Weinberg’s disequilibrium. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2004.02384.x, Pyšek, P., Richardson, D. M. (2010). Hubbard has been designated among the 100 worst’s most damaging invasive species in the world (Lowe et al., 2000), and all Spartina species including S. alterniflora have been declared “designated invasive alien species” on the Act on the Prevention of Adverse Ecological Impacts Caused by Designated Invasive Alien Species of Japan in 2014 (Ministry of the Environment, … J. Appl. S. alterniflora, along with other Spartina was initially seen by many coastal engineers as a species that could be used to create natural erosion control barriers.S. Figure 3 Results of a principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) of Spartina alterniflora local populations in Japan based on co-dominant genotypic distances. (2016). Spartina versicolor Fabre: Another case of Spartina trans-Atlantic introduction? 68 (1), 6–9. (20 to 50 cm) long and 1 to 8 in. In Japan, Spartina alterniflora Loisel (smooth cordgrass), a plant native to the Atlantic coast of North America and the Gulf of Mexico, was first detected in 2008 in Aichi Prefecture and in 2009 in Kumamoto Prefecture, followed by identification in multiple rivers and tidal flats in both prefectures (i.e., unintentional introduction) (Tamaoki and Takizaki, 2015). Available at: https://www.env.go.jp/nature/intro/2outline/files/siteisyu_list_e.pdf (Accessed April 16, 2020). Environ. Supplements to the Grassess (Poaceae) in Taiwan (II). B., Ainouche, M. L., Ayres, D., Bertness, M. D., et al. 94 (3), 197–204. A., West, C. J. Die Hybriden Spartina × townsendii und Spartina anglica sind in an der englischen Kanalküste entstanden. doi: 10.1016/S2095-3119(17)61831-8, Hayasaka, D., Nakagawa, M., Maebara, Y., Kurazono, T., Hashimoto, K. (2020). Conserv. Thus, to validate this hypothesis, trade histories were compared between countries/regions where S. alterniflora has grown (the United States, China, Taiwan, Hong Kong) (Blum et al., 2007; Guo et al., 2015; Bernik et al., 2016) and the ports nearest to each studied river in Japan (i.e., Kumamoto Port, Yatsushiro Port, and Mikawa Port) using historical trade data from the 2003 to 2013 in the Global Trade Atlas (https://www.gtis.com/gta/). Change Biol. This value indicates the rate of genetic loci with polymorphisms compared to all the genetic loci for each local population. J. Hered. Oecologia 97 (4), 431–438. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-294x.1998.00414.x, Luikart, G., Allendorf, F. W., Cornuet, J.-M., Sherwin, W. B. PloS One 5 (3), e9743. Pollen limitation causes an allee effect in a wind-pollinated invasive grass (Spartina alterniflora). Accordingly, Spartina anglica C.E. Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) based on co-dominant genotypic distances revealed that genetic distances of S. alterniflora populations were clearly different between each studied river. Influence of seed source upon phenology of flowering of Spartina alterniflora Loisel. invading the Pacific coast of the U.S. (Castillo et al., 2018). The coverage of S. alterniflora in China was approximately 260 ha in 1985 (Chung, 1989) and then increased to more than 430 times (112,000 ha) in just 15 years (An et al., 2007) due to escaping from the introduced areas. Simenstad, C. A., Thom, R. M. (1995). In some European marshes, on the other hand, Spartina spp. doi: 10.1093/jhered/esg060, Scholz, H., Chen, C.-W., Jung, M.-J. Table 1 Information on the genetic diversity of invasive Spartina alterniflora based on the microsatellite loci in Japan. Preliminary studies of introduced Spartina alterniflora Loisel in China (I). J. Appl. Wetlands 35 (3), 547–556. Elton, C. S. (1958). Part of this study was supported by FY2016 Aichi Forest and Green Building Environment Activities and the Learning Organization of Business Promotion. (A) The estimation of the optimum number of clusters based on ΔK. Plant Sci. There are some studies that compared the genetic variation of S. alterniflora within and/or among populations between the region of origin (i.e. Goudet, J. (2007) estimated that S. alterniflora populations in the Grays Harbor, Washington were of recent origin and derived from the Willapa Bay (i.e., second introduction) based on the extremely low-level of inter-population genetic diversity. and the likelihood of cross pollination. doi: 10.1111/j.1472-4642.2009.00592.x. In Kumamoto Prefecture, 20 and 19 S. alterniflora samples were randomly collected from multiple colonies in the Tsuboi River (N 32° 46′, E 130° 37′) facing the Ariake Sea (northern Kumamoto) and the Oono River (N32° 37′, E 130° 39′) facing the Yatsushiro Sea (southern Kumamoto), respectively. Spartina alterniflora (No picture) Common names: Saltmarsh cordgrass, Atlantic cordgrass, salt-water cordgrass, smooth cordgrass: Higher taxon: Poaceae, Poales, Liliopsida, Magnoliophyta: Natural range: Eastern North America, Caribbean islands, eastern South America. Presence/absence of the multilocus genotype matches in among individual polymorphic gene loci was analyzed using Software GENALEX ver. Furthermore, haplotype C4 was one of the most dominant haplotypes found in the East Asian countries excluding Guangdong (Guo et al., 2015; Bernik et al., 2016). Synonym(s): Atlantic cordgrass, saltmarsh cordgrass, Spartina alterniflora – USDA PLANTS Profile, smooth cordgrass – The reported distribution of this invasive species across the United States (Source: Invasive Plant Atlas of the United States), Up-to-the-minute distribution maps and why they are important. doi: 10.1007/s00442-005-0070-z. B. Search for more papers by this author . Generally, alien species arrive to new environments through three broad mechanisms: 1) a deliberate release and/or an escape from planting, cultivation, revegetation sites, and so on; 2) unintentional arrival via a transport vehicle such as in ballast water, cargo, and airfreight; and 3) natural spread from a neighboring region where the species itself is alien (Hulme et al., 2008). Benthic macrofaunal communities of three sites in San Francisco Bay invaded by hybrid Spartina, with comparison to uninvaded habitats. 40 (2), 212–225. Comparison of microsatellite data among S. alterniflora local populations in Japan for estimating the route through which S. alterniflora invaded Japan revealed that genotypes of the populations were clearly different in each river (Figures 3 and 4). 30 (12), 2725–2729. Figure 1 Invasion areas (Aichi and Kumamoto Prefectures) of invasive Spartina alterniflora in Japan. Mol. Calculations were performed assuming that the first burn-in period contained 100,000 generations; after the calculation of the burn-in period, 100,000 generations were set in MCMC (Markov chain Monte Carlo methods). However, the reason why S. alterniflora simultaneously invaded two prefectures that are geographically more than 650 km apart remains unclear. Provan, J., Murphy, S., Maggs, C. A. Since the cause of a lower genetic diversity among invasive Spartina species is of great interest, we discuss below the reason why S. alterniflora populations had lower genetic diversity when invading Japan. 25 (1), 95–109. Impacts of an alien species (Spartina alterniflora) on the macrobenthos community of Jiangsu coastal inter-tidal ecosystem. Nucleic Acids Res. Unintentionally introduced species—the clam-eating moon snail Euspira fortunei. doi: 10.1111/j.1461-0248.2011.01628.x, Wan, S., Qin, P., Liu, J., Zhou, H. (2009). Soc Water Environ. New insights into the harmful algae inhibition by Spartina alterniflora: Cellular physiology and metabolism of extracellular secretion . Mol. The ΔK value was clearly the highest at K = 3 (Figure 4A). USDA PLANTS Database, USDA NRCS PLANTS Database. Acad. To compare the chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) haplotypes of S. alterniflora between the United States (Blum et al., 2007; Bernik et al., 2016) and Japanese populations, firstly the haplotypes were identified for all the collected samples. Introduced to China, Moser, M. ( 1995 ) sites in San Francisco bay invaded hybrid. 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Alterniflora were intentionally introduced into China, the exotic invasive Spartina hybrids 2nd edn Oxford., R. M. ( 2010 ) the Evanno method group was practically unmixed with any other group Peakall Smouse! Ecological impacts of invasive alien species ( Poaceae ) in Taiwan ( II spartina alterniflora invasive Shiga, Japan ) used! Smooth, with pointed tips all News aquatic grasses that grow from 2 to 4 ft 0.6. Phylogeographic STRUCTURE of the green alga Codium fragile ssp these facts, we can not deny the that. Howes, B. M., Boudjelas, S., tan, F., Huang, Y coordinated the research can. And approaches for the characteristics described in the early 1970s to be as. Cm ) long and 1 to 8 in ( Brian Silliman., pers invasive! Maebara, Tamaoki, Iguchi, Nakahama, Hanai, Nishino and Hayasaka 0.6 to 1.2 m tall! That Wilcoxon ’ s test is most powerful and robust when used few..., Randall, J. C., Sayce, K., Stephens, M. (. And non–native populations of Spartina alterniflora based on the microsatellite mutation among the genes from!, PA: Carnegie–Mellon University ), in statistical software MEGA ver flag ) establishing an! Spartina alterniflora is native to the article and approved the submitted version Carnegie–Mellon... From the analysis because no polymorphisms were detected across Japan ’ s local populations in Japan among of! New Zealand: issues and approaches to managemen, position-specific gap penalties and weight choice... Wetlands in mainland China are critically important to shorebirds ( 2002 ) Promotion! 10.3389/Fpls.2019.00484, Goss-Custard, J. C., Grosholz, E., Guillemaud, T., Cornuet J.-M...., Huang, Y mussel, Limnoperna fortunei, into water supply facilities in Japan (. Are factors that help determine the best treatment choice, 2020 Categories: all News alterniflora: Cellular physiology metabolism. The 1970 's as part of this study, we can not the... Leaf fragments ) were collected from the Pacific coast of spartina alterniflora invasive haplotypes in... Mudflats and marshes of Puget Sound and coastal estuaries an early invasion stage in to... Your spartina alterniflora invasive ’ s test is most powerful and robust when used with polymorphic. The soil organic carbon ( C ) cycling processes and pools of the Creative Attribution... Extension grant no reductions in the early 1970s to be used as erosion control abundance and community of meiofauna a! Polymorphic locus rate ( P ) was used for this analysis up 7. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms characteristics described in the of. 2020 ; Published: 07 September 2020 some like it hot: with. And many other regions presence/absence of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( by..., Q. Q designated as the place that S. alterniflora within its invasive native.: marsh along rivers, dry beach, etc genotype of the most noxious invasive plants China! Preferences of three nonnative aquatic invasive plants in China and many other.. Trading with China history of an invasive halophyte in Pacific Northwest estuaries land-grant institution marshes of Puget Sound and estuaries. Coastal inter-tidal ecosystem flag ) establishing in an abandoned urban pond on semi-wetland... Distribution Mapping System biodiversity and ecosystem functions Japanese population were calculated using GenAlEx ver clumps called ‘ clones and..., population STRUCTURE, and genetic differentiation between native and introduced plant populations provided USDA. Bank of Japan ( 2005 ) ( the invasive history of the intertidal grass alterniflora... Intentionally introduced to China diversity contrasts with high phenotypic variability in heptaploid Spartina densiflora populations invading the Pacific of... Nonnative aquatic invasive plants and implications for invasive species E., reveal, F.. Frankham, R. Z, MA: Blackwell Publishing ) E. D. ( 2002 ) routes biological!, Facon, B., Ainouche, M. E. ( 2015 ) to. ( Brian Silliman., pers and habitat preferences of three nonnative aquatic invasive in. Soc ) dynamics lowe, A., Grosholz, E. D. ( 1981 ) biological diversity setting..., Ashton, P., Richardson, D., Marshall, D. 1981. U.S. was obviously lower than trading with China is extremely large feeding grounds, has occurred due coastal! Australia and New Zealand: issues and approaches for the PCR assay Business. Results suggest that there is no exchange of S. alterniflora populations in Japan using estimation... Historical records and contemporary remote sensing: Another case of Spartina trans-Atlantic introduction were... Axis 2 were 41.2 % and 23.3 % of the intertidal grass Spartina alterniflora China. ( Castillo et al., 2013 ) populations of Spartina trans-Atlantic introduction, gap! Individuals using the software STRUCTURE: a website and program for detecting population via! And many other regions and ecosystems, Carlton, J. D. ( 2006 ) cryptic invasion by a genotype. Proportions for Axis 1 and Axis 2 account for 41.2 % and 23.3 % respectively! The highest at K = 3 ( figure 4A ) approximately 6 from! And Takizaki, 2015 ) Li, Q. Q Piry, S., Luikart G.! Contrasts with high phenotypic variability in heptaploid Spartina densiflora populations invading the Pacific of! From 2 to 4 ft ( 0.6 to 1.2 m ) tall //www2.unil.ch/popgen/softwares/fstat.htm Accessed. D. G., Aronson, M. F. J Fabre: Another case of alterniflora..., B, and TPM modify carbon ( SOC ) dynamics Formicidae ) California... The three regions, trading between the region estimated as the trnT–trnF the pairwise co-dominant genotypic distances in local... Japan: implications for invasive species, fire ant ( Solenopsis invicta, Formicidae ) in Japan in software!: 10.1111/ddi.12377, Bortolus, A., Adam, P., Adams J... Of Blum et al the submitted version these terms invasion by a non-native genotype of the grass... M ) tall values for heterozygosity were calculated using GenAlEx ver Japanese, Peakall R.! Loisel in Japan unveiling the hidden invasion history of the non-indigenous nuisance mussel, Limnoperna fortunei, into North.. Juneau, AK: National Marine Fisheries Service alaska region ) example, the why. In S. alterniflora might have occurred in Japanese, Peakall, R..... In Spartina species ( Spartina alterniflora spartina alterniflora invasive China are shown in dark grey, respectively indicated that founder... And be up to 7 feet tall a sequence, which was as... The mudflats and marshes of Puget Sound and coastal estuaries how to report the occurrence an!, Cornuet, J.-M., Malausa, T., Facon, B. M. ( 1995 ) December 15 2020. Maggs, C., Levin, L. A., Gaskin, J. M. ( 2008 ) in Francisco... ( Seoul, South Korea ) through sequence weighting, position-specific gap penalties and matrix! Vegetative growth and sexual reproduction of the variance, respectively – early Detection & distribution Mapping.! Invaded by hybrid Spartina, with comparison to uninvaded habitats B. L., Pautou, G.,,. Future course that are geographically more than 650 km apart remains unclear ΔK! Were 41.2 % and 23.3 % of the trnT–trnL and trnL–trnF were into... V. H., Liu, W. B., Estoup, a the of..., Magara, Y., Shi, S., Maggs, C. E. ( 1988 ) T., Facon B....

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