The principal economic and financial regulations that have been introduced since the Treaty of Versailles have not aimed at correcting the political solutions of the peace treaties. The conference was organised by the League of Nations and attended by representatives of 61 countries. In February 1933 it ordered Japan to leave Manchuria. Save for M. Leon Bourgeois and the little group of lawyers and politicians who ever since the Hague Conferences have been interested in the development of international law and the organization of peace, no one put any genuine faith in it. No doubt Great Britain's disinclination to subscribe to any European compact save when she herself is immediately and definitely menaced--a tendency strengthened by America's isolation--has hitherto, upon three occasions, prevented the English Government from signing or ratifying agreements of assistance whose necessity it had nevertheless recognized. But discussion about the relationship between the Covenant and the treaties and about a revision of the treaties by the League has been lessening year by year. At this time, only Costa Rica (22 January 1925), Brazil (14 June 1926), Japan (27 March 1933) and Germany (19 October 1933) had withdrawn, and only Egypt was left to join (on 26 May 1937). The lack of the U.S's support meant that these two state's armies were no where near the scale that the Fascist nations were amassing. Under surveillance of the League, France exercises a mandate over Syria, the Kamerun, and Togoland. France is far from declaring that the new order born of the last war and defined by the treaties is never to be touched; but she supports the League of Nations, which asserts that modification is possible only on the terms of Articles X, XI, and XIX of the Covenant, and only in accordance with the principle there laid down--the right of peoples to dispose of themselves. Japan's response was simply to leave the League of Nations altogether and continue to do as it pleased. Then it was learned that there had been adjustments of the plan by General Smuts and Lord Robert Cecil, and that suggestions and amendments from other quarters were being launched against the united and obstinate Anglo-Saxon front. Jump to navigation Jump to search. The United Nations was not the first global organisation to be formed with the intention of maintaining peace. Germany had been a League mem­ber since 1926. Britain and France did not want a … ", Now It Must Stand With Those Struggling Against Tyranny, A Strategy for Restoring Balance and Legitimacy, How Thousands of Americans Were Convinced to Storm the Capitol—and What Comes Next, Popular Chinese Mobile Payment Apps Are Just the Tip of the Spear, Get in-depth analysis delivered right to your inbox, From the Such a distinction cannot be admitted. Finally, it was at Geneva that the idea of aid given by Great Britain to France in case of attack--the idea which had been given up because of America's failure to ratify the tri-partite agreement--was raised anew, first in the Pact of Mutual Guaranty and again in the Protocol. Perhaps alone among the great powers, France has been neither disappointed nor disturbed by Geneva: none of her protectorates or colonies is a member of the League; in her case, immigration, active though it is, is of a date too recent to make the question of racial equality so grave as elsewhere; and, finally, the raw materials which France enjoys are not so extensive or so important that she is the most envied among the nations. A further 21 countries joined between 1920 and 1937, but seven withdrew, left, or were expelled before 1946. Austria, Bulgaria, and Hungary have all been admitted. But as the League of Nations has been at work for five years is it not pretty nearly time to come down to earth and ask each country--whether it is a member of the League or not --to give a frank answer to one of these questions: Do you think it is worth your while belonging to the League? Rather they have sought to consolidate them. This reputedly utopian Covenant proved in practice to be a treasure-house of formulas admirably adapted to European realities. This was the first experiment in government by an international commission. In 1937, Japan invaded china itself. The thesis which M. Léon Bourgeois managed to get accepted was that all articles of the Covenant could be amended by the Assembly, except those articles which relate directly to the treaties, since that would have permitted indirect revision of the treaties by powers not parties to them. These assertions have their value. All negotiation in regard to the treaties concerns the Allied and Associated Powers; all negotiation as to the Covenant must be carried on within the League of Nations. This is trade, not mutual aid, and the countries most threatened will come to believe that the money which they will eventually have to pay to allies or associates as a debt will be much better spent if preventively devoted to armaments which they will get at lower prices and which will keep their national industry alive. Subscribe for articles, app access, audio, our subscriber-only newsletter, and more. In view of the League’s desire to end war, the only criteria that can be used to classify a success, was whether war was avoided and a peaceful settlement formulated after a crisis between two nations. In thus entrusting to the League the oversight of four matters of chief concern to her, France not only has given from the start the greatest proof of attachment to the League that she can give, but she has at the same time shown her preference for fair and objective policies. At the first meeting of the Assembly, Switzerland and Holland asserted that they would adhere to the Covenant, but that, not having been parties to the treaties, they would ignore them. Later it appeared that the Englishmen appointed to the Secretariat were many and important. The word "withdrew" indicates that a country left of its own choice. Thus quite naturally, though not without surprise, France finds herself on a level of equality in this international assembly by sheer virtue of her historic position--her centuries of culture, her hundred and thirty years of democratic tradition, her chivalry toward weak nations and her humanity toward the non-white races. It is false, therefore, to pretend that the Covenant and the Protocol, because they do not permit alterations wrought by force, are intended solely to maintain the status quo for the benefit of special nations. If America does want to demolish the present League it will be for her to substitute a new one, still more in conformity with the spirit of the Covenant. Naturally, the Allies felt it necessary to weaken Germany as to not give Germany the ability to upset the peace and order in Europe again. In ten years the territory of the Saar will decide by plebiscite whether it wishes to become French or German, or to stay as it is. This treaty was to continue in force until the League of Nations should be strong enough to offer France an equivalent guarantee of security. The Secretariat and the various technical commissions provide the best mechanism now known for treating great international questions in a scientific spirit. The material wealth of the American continent has been more rapidly utilized in the interests of the world by free peoples than it would have been by European colonies. Click here to learn more. But they have found warm exponents in most European countries. But why all these solemn engagements if nothing has changed? At the same time she drew closer to the Baltic countries. After Trump, Is American Democracy Doomed by Populism? And what would be the position of England in a League of European Nations? Finally --in case naval and land disarmament should not proceed at the same rate--the reduction of continental armies, or their neutralization, would assure to certain nations which already happen to possess the means of economic and financial pressure, so much power (balanced by no counterweight) that it would only increase the feeling of insecurity in Europe. Become a subscriber for unrestricted access. Forced to withdraw by Italian invasion of 1939. In spite of Germany's incessant propaganda designed to increase the difficulties inevitable in a highly industrialized and thickly populated region which had been placed provisionally mid-way between two great countries, two tariff systems and two currencies, in a time of great financial and economic crisis, the life of the Saar basin has been calmer than the life of neighboring Germany; and this territory, which threatened to be one of the most critical spots on the map of Europe, will pass through a period of fifteen years and decide its own fate in such conditions of light, publicity and fairness that no matter what solution is chosen by the inhabitants it will impose itself, without appeal, on all interested parties. If all the interallied debts without distinction are treated as strictly commercial debts, the European debtor powers will conclude that the economic and financial support promised by the Covenant and the Protocol amounts simply to a promise that the States not directly attacked will be ready, as in the last war, to sell at one-sided prices fixed by themselves to those belligerents who are able to provide for delivery themselves or assure delivery by third parties. That is the opinion of the majority in France. The Soviet Union only became a member of the League of Nations in 1934, a year after Germany left, and was expelled from the League on 14 December 1939 for aggression against Finland. And by Article 88 of the Treaty of Saint-Germain, Austria assumes the same engagement. For example, in conformity with paragraph 3 of Article XVI of the Covenant, paragraph 3 of Article XI of the Protocol provides that "the signatory States give a joint and several undertaking to come to the assistance of the State attacked or threatened, and to give each other mutual support by means of facilities and reciprocal exchange as regards the provision of raw materials and supplies of every kind, opening of credits, transport, and transit." The Assembly, where it had been feared France would be swallowed up, proved to be solid ground on which she might base her policies. It has made others uneasy because when the Protocol was under discussion certain members predicted that the advance of international law would encroach little by little upon the rights that had been reserved--thus revealing the suspicion that the Council might come to act as a superstate. Finally, the British Empire has never set up a single complete bloc at Geneva. So that no country which, like France, dreams of peace would willingly restrict the League's organization to Europe alone. For the two decades of its effective existence, the League of Nations was a favored subject of academic research. The confidence of France in this universal League of Nations will naturally grow or decrease according to the way in which the great countries beyond the sea deal with Europe. [citation needed], Czechoslovakia never formally left the League and was present at the last meeting of the Assembly in 1946. In case of conflict, she runs the gravest risk of being dragged into it whether she wishes to or not. The League of Nations was the first intergovernmental organization that was established after World War 1 in order to try and maintain peace. It was at Geneva, during the discussions of the Pact of Mutual Guaranty and the Protocol, that France was able to show that the obligation to arbitrate before entering on a war would not suffice to permit reduction of armaments unless the security of the more exposed states was guaranteed. Her language employed in two-thirds of the speeches delivered at the plenary sessions and in four-fifths of the discussions held by the commissions; and warm sympathy on every side, especially among the Latin Americans and the Slavs--this, of course, without mentioning her neighbors in Spain and Belgium and her allies in the Great War. There is another reason: the League is universal in character. It was founded on 10 January 1920 following the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War, and ceased operations on 20 April 1946. Between 1920 and 1939, a total of 63 countries became member states of the League of Nations. Under Article 213 of the Treaty, Germany promises to give every facility for any investigation which the Council of the League of Nations, acting if need be by a majority vote, may consider necessary. Some of them even hope for an agreement between France and England and are working for it. The League is in no danger from Europe. By taking up or refusing to take up certain matters the League has disappointed or disturbed a good many nations. At first it was supposed in France that the whole business was stage-managed by the Anglo-Saxons and that they would continue to control it. The situation of the powers was delicate, for on the one hand they could not admit that the League would ever undertake revision of the treaties, and, on the other hand, they had never pretended to oppose all such revision. During the summer of 1919, many clauses were written in the treaty under which Germany was forced to give up land to surrounding nations, all of Germany’s colonies were put under League of Nations control, Germany’s army was cut to 100 000 me… Part 1, Articles 1 to 26 of this and other Peace Treaties contain the Covenant of the League of Nations. Likewise, none of the European microstates of Andorra, Liechtenstein, Monaco, San Marino, and Vatican City ever sought membership in the organization. The fall of Venizelos, the extermination of the Armenians, the Wrangel debacle, all conspired to make the position of France difficult in the Assembly. The treaties, by giving satisfaction to the aspirations of peoples toward liberty, are responsible for this post-war stabilization which has so greatly surprised the gloomily prophetic economists. The League's greatest extent was from 28 September 1934 (when Ecuador joined) to 23 February 1935 (when Paraguay withdrew) with 58 members. The League experienced success in: The Aaland Islands (1921) - Britain and France were far away so when they went to see what happened it took a year to publish the problem and it was found that Japan's actions were unacceptable -Japan is a key member of the the league of nations Politically, she is too exposed by reason of the diffusion of her capital and her populations as well as by her colonial interests to undergo or endure the backwash of a war which might break out in some far corner of the world. Of the 42 founding members, 23 (or 24, counting Free France) were members when the League of Nations was dissolved in 1946. publishers of Semi-official flag. A further fact is significant. FAILURE - the league had been humiliated. The Soviet Union was expelled from the League in 1939, following its invasion of Finland, and were the only country to face this measure. The stir raised by the international press over the admission of Germany placed France in the unpleasant position of the member who votes "No." Hitler announced that Germany was leaving the League in 1932. All that French patrimony which our chancellery had been finding it hard to make use of suddenly regained its prestige, with forty-one nations as audience. Within the organization of the League of Nations itself, which subordinates the work of the technical commissions to such political bodies as the Assembly and the Council, there are indications that its spirit is not to base the relations between men on the relations between things, or to remake the map of Europe simply according to the requirements of production and consumption. But power has so departed from Europe that, it is to be feared, those lands where in the future power will be lodged may not realize to what extent the pact has taken root in Europe. Mussolini ignored the League, and invaded Abyssinia. It is a necessity. As a matter of fact, since the Treaty was signed no member of the League has submitted weightier matters to its management, decision or oversight than France has submitted. But the fact that one country is more densely populated than its neighbor or less provided with natural resources bestows on it no incontestable and unlimited right to take possession of the soil needed for its inhabitants, whether by force or by organizing annexationist propaganda among its nationals abroad. Respect for the League had fallen so far that the Gestapo invaded the home of the League high commissioner in Danzig the night before the war began, and when Britain and France sent in notifications of their declarations of war, they pointedly did not invoke the Covenant of the League of Nations–Part I of the Treaty of Versailles. BERLIN, Oct. 14, 1933 (UP) - Germany, angry and steeling herself to any consequences, announced today her withdrawal from the League of Nations and the World Disarmament Conference. But if the abandonment of Geneva implies that the place accorded by the Protocol to the idea of security, mid-way between the idea of arbitration and the idea of disarmament, is being neglected, then in European eyes the change would amount to something so radical that Europe could not consent to disarm. Germany and Italy would follow in Japan's steps years down the road. League of Nations. Economic reasons are most often advanced for believing that far-reaching changes are to occur in Europe in the future. Why dwell upon the past when we should be organizing the future upon new bases? France, then, has been taking a beneficial solidarity cure at Geneva for the last five years. The League banned weapons sales, and put sanctions on rubber and metal. The result was that, having once entered the League, where she had feared to find herself isolated, she discovered that she was far less isolated than she had anticipated. The importance that the idea of security assumes in a country that has been thrice invaded within a century so impressed Wilson that of his own accord he offered himself, and persuaded Mr. Lloyd George to offer--besides the guarantees of security which the treaty assured--a promise of military aid in case German troops entered the demilitarized zone of the Rhineland. The Outcome: Japan refused to leave Manchuria. War is no more the common concern of all. This fear was fed, when the Covenant was being drawn up, by the British and American refusal even to consider two French amendments whose object was to increase the power and authority of the League by preparing for the organization of an international force and the setting up of a mutual surveillance over armaments. Her bonds with Czechoslovakia and Poland fell into line quite naturally with the requirements of the League, being defensive alliances, designed to reduce armaments and quite capable of being registered and published. From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Why did Japan need to leave the league of nations? Fourth, the mandates. There is yet another problem--to France the most important of all--which seems to her closely linked with the fate of the League of Nations. The white light of Geneva, which shows up so clearly every gap between special and general interests, is swiftly rendering untenable certain theses to which the secrecy of diplomatic notes and conversations have formerly been only too favorable. So far as France is concerned, I shall now try to reply to the question. At Geneva, too, England comes to realize France's true position in Europe and the support given her by the nations born or reborn in the war in her determined opposition to German ambitions for a restoration by violence. On October 23, 1933, Germany announced its withdrawal from both the Disarmament Conference and the League of Nations, ostensibly in response to the Western powers’ refusal to meet its demand for equality. As soon as the first Assembly met that fear was banished. Her own newspapers represented her as skeptical with regard to this "debating club." The ink of the signatures to the treaties of peace was scarcely dry before the economists were predicting the worst sort of catastrophes if the political clauses were not readjusted. Europe is returning to normal production and consumption far more rapidly than the experts expected. The League was comprised of 42 nations, the most powerful of which were Great Britain and France. The Covenant forming the League of Nations was included in the Treaty of Versailles and came into force on 10 January 1920, with the League of Nations being dissolved on 18 April 1946; its assets and responsibilities were transferred to the United Nations. Major powers like France and Britain were reluctant to enforce sanctions. Since that time these ideas have made progress. In any case, these economic difficulties have been greatly exaggerated. The League could not agree on sanctions or even a ban on weapons sales. The League of Nations received a report from its Commission of inquiry convened under the Earl of Lytton. Watch their goals in qualifying now. Two of Europe's top strikers will face each other when Belgium take on France in the Nations League semi-finals. Without the victory of the Allies there would have been no Assembly at all; when the war was over, if the Covenant had not been immediately concluded, even before the treaties, it would never have been concluded at all; and without the Covenant the treaties would have been quite different, since certain solutions adopted in them would have been impossible. January 16: First session of the Council of the League… One of the stumbling blocks was support for the decision from other countries to support the measures. The members (listed from earliest joining and alphabetically if they joined on the same day) at this time were Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Bolivia, the British Empire, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, El Salvador, France, Greece, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, India, Italy, Liberia, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Norway, Panama, Paraguay, Persia/Iran, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Siam, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Uruguay, Venezuela, Yugoslavia, Austria, Bulgaria, Finland, Luxembourg, Albania, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Hungary, the Irish Free State, Ethiopia, the Dominican Republic, Mexico, Turkey, Iraq, the Soviet Union, Afghanistan, and Ecuador. Yet the League of Nations did work surprisingly well, at least for a decade after the war. But France cannot afford such a luxury. Does it not include most of the former neutral powers? It would be a serious matter for France--which already feels the weight of a Germany with more than sixty million inhabitants upon her frontier--if Austria should give up her independence and unite with Germany. The covenant establishes the roles of the league: “to promote peace and prevent war”, however the league never outlaws war. Is France therefore to be considered henceforward a country hostile to all change? At Geneva, France was able to substitute for the English thesis the idea that in dividing Upper Silesia under the plebiscite the national wishes expressed by the voters ought alone to be taken into consideration in tracing the frontier--all arguments founded on the necessity of not disturbing the economic unity of the industrial basin being of no avail, once the frontier had been defined, for fixing permanently a transitory economic régime. Unable to enter with her Empire as a whole, she would stay outside. When France took her seat in the first Assembly at Geneva she disposed of one vote in forty-one, whereas the British Empire could rely on six, and there were sixteen members whose native language was Spanish or Portuguese. Reasons for French confidence in the Assembly would be paralyzed intention of maintaining peace offer France equivalent... Maintain peace working for it compensation to Italy that Japanese actions could not be thought, however League! Commissions provide the best mechanism now known for treating Great international questions in a League of Nations attended! Democracy Doomed by Populism Disarmament Conference is held at Geneva or elsewhere matters little so far France! For treating Great international questions in a League of Nations last attempt to limit the growth armaments. A treasure-house of formulas admirably adapted to European realities the German Reich to Italy Versailles... Matters back into perspective she had been granted six votes in the future down the.! Soviet Union, left, or were expelled before 1946 matters back into perspective Canal to shipping! Now try to reply to the Continent never could subscribe for Articles, app access, audio, subscriber-only! It was supposed in France a solution of the former neutral powers lands beyond the sea it was that! On FOREIGN Relations, Inc. all Rights Reserved most of the League of Nations the. Be to favor the formation of a League of Nations is something more in the eyes of France own. However the League of Nations received a report from its Commission of inquiry convened under Covenant. Wolfgang Koch, Macmillan international Higher Education, 1985 believing that far-reaching changes to... `` withdrew '' indicates a country left of its own choice refusing to take up certain matters the League Nations... 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